Hey guys! Many of us believe that herd immunity can fight against contagious diseases. Even my friends said that “Once we got this, we able to fight COVID-19”. First of all we have to understand this term. Herd immunity is not a kind of immunity which related to our body rather it is a theory. In this theory when a huge part of population are immune for a specific disease, then the chart of spreading infection falls.
There are mainly 2 types of diseases
To understand herd immunity we have to figure out types of disease. This Immunity is work around contagious diseases because infectious diseases not need it.
1 Contagious Diseases
Contagious disease occurs because of some virus and bacteria which are spread from one to another. A single infected person is able to spread it in a mass population. The number of illness multiplies day by day. To control such kind of diseases is very difficult. Like measles, Polio, chickenpox. You can see we are still fighting with these infections. Still we use polio drops for new babies which helps to make a antibody.
2 Infectious Diseases
A person who are infected by such disease are not able to spread it to another person. We may get these virus and bacteria through insects, contaminated food or water. These bacteria infected a single body and survive in his body. We see many such infections in our day to day life. Cold, fever and many others.
How immunity system works in human body
Our immunity body is a fighter which helps us to stay healthy. If we don’t have immunity then we fall ill daily. It protects our body from foreign virus and bacteria (antigens). We are not able to feel the presence of this but if we are not have an immune, then ofcours we can feel the absence of this. We have two immune systems, innate and adaptive immunity. Innate immune works on initial stage and further hand over to adaptive immune system.
1 Innate immune system
When any antigens enters in our body, our red blood cells recognize them. Then innate immune release eating cells and try to destroy them. It is initial stage of protection, so there is not any specific antibody for such foreign virus. So it is also term as non-specific immune system.
2 Adaptive immune system
Adaptive (specific) immunity creates a special antibody for specific antigens. Once the antibody creates it saved in memory cells. In future when these antigens enters in our body, our cells recognize them and our antibody for these particular germs activated.
How herd immunity works
Now come to the topic. Now we are able to figure out what is herd immunity and how its works. When any new contagious disease recognize, we all are unaware of it. It transmit from one to another and infected a huge community but when almost 70% to 80% population have antibody for that. Then spreading rates decreased. This collective immune system called herd immunity.
Basically herd means group of any species, may be its human being or animals. And herd immunity is the huge part of that group have immune to any specific contagious disease. The percentage differ from disease to disease. For Measles it was 94% and for polio it was 80%. The percentage for COVID-19 is still undefined. Some Doctors said that when 95% of population have immune system against COVID-19, then we can control it.
There are three category of people when any new disease attacks on our community:-
1 Healthy : These people are still uninfected but don’t have antibody.
2 Infected : Those part of population which are infected from disease.
3 Immuned : These people have antibody for that particular virus.
So when the third type of people increase. We achieve the herd immunity.
Some experts says that “we have to release all restrictions and let that COVID-19 to spread. Immune system is a natural process. It automatically creates antibody for that.” But if 95% (as per define percentage for herd immunity) population get infected, then it is not possible to give medication to all of them. Even no one country is able and we have not a proper medication. It becomes worst situation and increased death rates.
We should wait for specific treatment and remedy. Until we have to follow all rules of social distancing.